Documents Referenced in Sweating Bullets:
Andreessen, Marc. 2007. “Part 3: ‘But I Don’t Know Any VCs!’ ” Pmarca Guide to Startups. June 25, 2007. Archived at
Austin, Dennis, and Robert Gaskins. 1985. “Presenter [PowerPoint] Design.” 21 August, 1985.
Austin, Dennis, and Robert Gaskins. 1985. “Presenter [PowerPoint] Output Samples.” 21 August, 1985.
Austin, Dennis, Tom Rudkin, and Robert Gaskins. 1986. “Presenter [PowerPoint] Specification.” 22 May, 1986.
Belleville, Cathy, Lucy Peterson, and Aniko Somogyi. 1997. “PowerPoint: The First Ten Years.” 20 April, 1997.
Cortén, Dick. 2008. “ ‘Big Boost from Berkeley’: Inventing Critical Breakthroughs Behind the Personal Computer.”
The Graduate, UC Berkeley Graduate Division, Vol. 20 No. 1, 2008.
Gaskins, Robert. 1984. “Presenter [PowerPoint] Original Proposal.” 14 August, 1984.
Gaskins, Robert. 1986. “Presenter [PowerPoint] Marketing Analysis.” 27 June, 1986.
Gaskins, Robert. 1986. “Presenter [PowerPoint] New Product Summary and Review.” 15 July, 1986.
Gaskins, Robert. 1986. “Presenter [PowerPoint] Status Update.” 14 August, 1986.
Gaskins, Robert. 1987. “Forethought Future Business Strategy.” 25 May, 1987.
Gaskins, Robert. 1987. “History of Forethought Since the Restart.” 25 May, 1987.
Gaskins, Robert. 1987. “Lessons from the Experience of the Restart.” 25 May, 1987.
Gaskins, Robert. 1987. “Response to Microsoft.” 1 June, 1987.
Gaskins, Robert. 1987. “Response to Microsoft, Extended.” 15 June, 1987.
Gaskins, Robert. 1987. “Results of Microsoft’s Graphics Business Unit after Our First Year.” 8 August, 1988.
Gaskins, Robert. 1992. “Photos of GBU on Sand Hill Road, 1992” (PowerPoint presentation; “.pps” is a self-running slide show,
“.ppt” is a conventional PowerPoint presentation). Includes good photographs of many of the GBU people. 1992.
Gaskins, Robert. 2002. Interview by Peter Day. “Power Mad.” BBC Radio 4, London. 10 February, 2002.
Gaskins, Robert. 2002. Transcript of interview by Peter Day. “Power Mad Transcript.” BBC Radio 4, London. 10 February, 2002.
Gaskins, Robert. 2007. “PowerPoint at 20: Back to Basics.” Communications of the ACM 50, no. 12 (December 2007): 15–17. On the web at
Gaskins, Robert. 2012. “Comments on Dilbert’s History of PowerPoint.” 2012.
Gaskins, Robert. 2012. “PowerPoint 1.0 for Macintosh 1987, T-Shirt 25-Year Re-Issue.”
The original pre-Microsoft packaging for PowerPoint 1.0 for Macintosh, as shipped by Forethought. 20 April 2012.
Archived design with 25th-anniversary dates at
Gaskins, Robert. 2012. Sweating Bullets: Notes about Inventing PowerPoint.
San Francisco and London: Vinland Books, 512 pp. Library of Congress Control Number 2012936438. LC classification T385 .G379 2012,
LC Dewey class no. 005.5/8. LC Subjects: Gaskins, Robert, Microsoft PowerPoint (Computer file)--History, Forethought, Inc.--History, Microsoft Corporation--History--20th century, Presentation graphics software--History.
Publication formats: ISBN13: 978-0-9851424-0-7 (hardcover) ISBN10: 0-9851424-0-5 (hardcover), ISBN13: 978-0-9851424-1-4 (web PDF) ISBN10: 0-9851424-1-3 (web PDF), ISBN13: 978-0-9851424-2-1 (paperback) ISBN10: 0-9851424-2-1 (paperback), ISBN13: 978-0-9851424-3-8 (ebook kindle) ISBN10: 0-9851424-3–X (ebook kindle), ISBN13: 978-0-9851424-4-5 (ebook epub) ISBN10: 0-9851424-4–8 (ebook epub). 20 April 2012.
Archived searchable full text with hyperlinks to unpublished sources at
Gaskins, Robert, and Dennis Austin. 2002. Interview by Steffan Heuer. “The Revolutionaries of the Office.” Brand Eins (Issue 3, 2002). Translated by Susan Grabau.
Gaskins, Robert, and Laura Gould. 1972. Snobol4: A Computer Language for the Humanities. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1972. On the web at
Gates, Bill. 1991. “Market Share of Applications in the United States.” 19 February, 1991.
Gold, Rich. 2002. “Reading PowerPoint.” In Working with Words and Images: New Steps in an Old Dance,
edited by Nancy Allen, 256–270. Westport, Connecticut: Ablex Publishing, 2002. (Gold’s chapter was written in 1999). Archived at
Graphics Business Unit, Microsoft. 1989. “GBU Map and Driving Directions.” 10 November 1989.
Lucky, Robert W. 1998. “The World According to PowerPoint.” IEEE Spectrum, January 1998: p. 17.
Original IEEE copy at
Maples, Mike. 2004. “An Interview with Mike Maples (OH 387).” Edited by Nathan Ensmenger.
Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Information Processing, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 7 May, 2004.
Microsoft Corporation. 1987. “Microsoft Letter of Intent for Forethought.” 13 May, 1987.
New York Times. 1987. “Microsoft Buys Software Unit.” 31 July, 1987.
Rudkin, Tom. 1987. “Appearance of PowerPoint under Windows and Presentation Manager.” 5 October, 1987.
PowerPoint 25th Anniversary:
Notes about Inventing PowerPoint
“PowerPoint was the first presentation software designed for Macintosh and
Windows, received the first venture capital investment ever made by Apple, then
became the first significant acquisition ever made by Microsoft, and is now,
twenty-five years later, installed on over one billion computers worldwide.”
“Robert Gaskins (who invented the idea, managed its design and development,
and then headed the new Microsoft group) has written this book to commemorate
the twenty-fifth anniversary of PowerPoint, recounting stories of the perils
narrowly evaded as a startup, dissecting the complexities of being the first
distant development group in Microsoft, and explaining decisions and insights
that enabled PowerPoint to become a lasting success.”
Published by Vinland Books 2012,
Hardcover 6" x 9", 512 pp., $35.00
Full PDF searchable, 512 pp., Free
Paperback 6" x 9", 512 pp., $17.99
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Full PDF format (fully searchable and with links to references) is available worldwide for free download here,
PowerPoint 1.0 for Macintosh 1987
T-Shirt 25 Year Re-Issue
The original pre-Microsoft packaging for PowerPoint 1.0 for Macintosh,
as shipped by Forethought on 20 April 1987. Now re-issued as a T-shirt for the
25th anniversary of PowerPoint.
T-shirts by American Apparel;
choose any of 21 T-shirt colors, light or dark, in
sizes and styles for men and women. High quality printing by RedBubble.
Order from RedBubble for $20.98
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